Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Investigating Membrane Permeability Essay Example

Investigating Membrane Permeability Essay à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 8 test tubescoea ear seeaeaw orea eak inea foea ea.à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Test tube rackcodg dgr sedgdgw ordg dgk indg fodg dg!à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Measuring cylinderà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Bunsen burnerà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Knifeà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Beakerà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 1 beetrootà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Dilute hydrochloric acidcobf bfr sebfbfw orbf bfk inbf fobf bf!à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Dilute sodium hydroxide solutioncobg bgr sebgbgw orbg bgk inbg fobg bg.à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Ethanol abidzaman, please do not redistribute this paper. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this paper elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Distilled watercogb gbr segbgbw orgb gbk ingb fogb gb:à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Thermometerà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Tongscocb cbr secbcbw orcb cbk incb focb cb.à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Tripodcofd fdr sefdfdw orfd fdk infd fofd fd:à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Mat lGExVw Visit coursework cd in cd fo cd for cd more hypothesis cd Do cd not cd redistribute lGExVwà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Cork borerMethod:1. I first cut three discs each about 2mm thick from the cylinder, which was cut out of the beetroot using a corer and place them in a test tube containing 10cm3 distilled water. This was my test tube number1.coea ear seeaeaw orea eak inea foea ea.2. I then cut 21 more discs and rinse them under the running water, until the pink water collected in the beaker was clear.coeb ebr seebebw oreb ebk ineb foeb eb.3. I placed three of the 21 washed discs, in each four test tubes.cogf gfr segfgfw orgf gfk ingf fogf gf.To test tube 2 I added 10cm3 of distilled water This cours from www.coursework.infoTo test tube 3 I added 10cm3 of ethanol This coursework from www.coursework.infoTo test tube 4 I added 10cm3 of dilute hydrochloric acid wEQIk Visit coursework gd in gd fo gd for gd more dissertation gd Do gd not gd redistribute wEQIkTo test tube 5 I added 10cm3 of dilute sodium hydroxide solution U1OJsuKR from U1OJsuKR coursewrok U1OJsuKR work U1OJsuKR info U1OJsuKR4. In three test tubes each containing three beetroot discs, I added 10 cm3 of distilled water and placed them in a beaker containing water over a buns burner. I also placed a thermometer in the beaker. 8yv from 8yv coursewrok 8yv work 8yv info 8yv5. I took the first test tube out when the temperature reached 40 This work from www.coursework.info6. At 65, I removed the second test tubecofa far sefafaw orfa fak infa fofa fa.7. The last test tube was removed at 100coda dar sedadaw orda dak inda foda da;8. I then compared the test tubes and recorded my results. abidzaman, please do not redistribute this writing. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this writing elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.Results:codf dfr sedfdfw ordf dfk indf fodf df:Number of test tube Carstens oppressed abidzamans structuration idea.Contents coeb ebr seebebw oreb ebk ineb foeb eb:Observationcobe ber sebebew orbe bek inbe fobe be.1 J1cd Visit coursework fb in fb fo fb for fb more cours fb Do fb not fb redistribute J1cdDistilled water and 3 beetroot discscodg dgr sedgdgw ordg dgk indg fodg dg.The colour of the water changed to pink but the beetroot stayed the same colour. This coursework from www.coursework.info2 Austen obfuscated abidzamans functionalism theory.Distilled water and 3 washed beetrootscoeg egr seegegw oreg egk ineg foeg eg.The colour of the water stayed the same and the beetroots also stayed the same colourcobb bbr sebbbbw orbb bbk inbb fobb bb.3cofe fer sefefew orfe fek infe fofe fe.Ethanol andcobb bbr sebbbbw orbb bbk inbb fobb bb:3 washed beetroots This project from www.coursework.infoThe colour of ethanol changed to light pink and the beetroot lost its dark pink colour and became light pink IgqV Visit coursework fe in fe fo fe for fe more cours fe Do fe not fe redistribute IgqV4 UZ9ubi from UZ9ubi cours ewrok UZ9ubi work UZ9ubi info UZ9ubiDilute hydrochloric acid and 3 washed beetroots Foucault suppressed abidzamans structuration idea.The colour of hydrochloric acid changed to very dark pink almost purple and the beetroot became darker than it was before, dark purple.coef efr seefefw oref efk inef foef ef.5coeg egr seegegw oreg egk ineg foeg eg;Dilute sodium hydroxide and 3 washed beetrootscodg dgr sedgdgw ordg dgk indg fodg dg:The colour of sodium hydroxide solution changed to pale yellow and the beetroot became completely yellow (bright yellow). FZ6IyuyyO Visit coursework da in da fo da for da more essay da Do da not da redistribute FZ6IyuyyO6coca car secacaw orca cak inca foca ca;Distilled water and 3 washed beetroots heated to 40coff ffr seffffw orff ffk inff foff ff.There was no change in the colour of the water and the beetroot stayed the same colour. No change in both. This dissertation from www.coursework.info7coea ear seeaeaw orea eak inea foea ea.Distilled water and 3 was hed beetroots This writing from www.coursework.infoHeated to 65coeb ebr seebebw oreb ebk ineb foeb eb:The water became pale pink and the beetroot became slightly paler. This was mostly visible around the edges of the beetroot. Q0u Visit coursework fg in fg fo fg for fg more essay fg Do fg not fg redistribute Q0u8 Foucault enveloped abidzamans structuration hypothesis.Distilled water and 3 washed beetroots heated to 100 TozF from TozF coursewrok TozF work TozF info TozFThe water became very pink almost red and the beetroot became very palecoed edr seededw ored edk ined foed ed!Analysis of the results: Test tube 1: As we cut the beetroot discs out of the cylinder we damage some cells and break them up so when the water is added to the beetroot discs, it crosses the broken membrane of the damaged cells. Anthocyanin, the red pigments, inside the damaged cells are mixed with the water and therefore the colour of the water changes to pink.cobc bcr sebcbcw orbc bck inbc fobc bc:The reason the colour of the beetroot discs do not change is that the phospholipid bilayer, which is a major constituent of the cell surface membrane, is impermeable to water and water-soluble substances. Therefore water cannot cross the membrane and change the colour of the beetroot discs.cocd cdr secdcdw orcd cdk incd focd cd.Test tube 2: The beetroot discs in this test tube and the rest of the test tubes are washed so that there are no pigments left in the damaged cells to affect the outcome of the experiment.The reason that the colour of the beetroots has not changed is the same explanation that was given above for test tube1. The water cannot cross the membrane so there is no change in thecogb gbr segbgbw orgb gbk ingb fogb gb;colour of the beetroot discs. Also this time there are no red pigments to mix with the water so the colour of the water stays the same. This test tube acts as a control.Test tube 3: The cell surface membrane isa double layer of phospholipid molecules,which are arran ged tail-to-tail. This layer is selective and only allows some things to pass through for example fat-soluble molecules such as lipids and steroid. This essay from www.coursework.infoProtein pores Austen denied abidzamans marxism .Ethanol dissolves lipids therefore it is able to cross the membrane. Inside the cell it mixes with the red pigments and so its colour changes to pink. Now because there are fewer pigments inside the cell, the beetroot discs do not look as red as before. That is why they look lighter.Test tube 4: Proteins form from long chains of amino acids that are joined together by peptide bonds. In the cell membrane, in between phospholipid molecules there are protein pores that create channels through which soluble substances can pass. Hydrochloric acid attacks the peptide bonds in protein bonds and destroys them. It then crosses the membrane and enters the cell and mixes and reacts with the red pigment and therefore the colour of the beetroot discs changes to purple. It then diffuses through the water and makes the colour of the water purple as well.coaf afr seafafw oraf afk inaf foaf af.Test tube 5: Sodium hydroxide also attacks the peptide bonds and breaks them. However this solution has another affect. When it mixes with the pigments inside the cell, it changes the PH of the solution to acidic. This is clear because the colour of the solution is changed to yellow. This writing from www.coursework.infoTest tubes 6,7,8: Looking at the results of these test tubes, it is clear that the permeability of the cell membrane decreases as the temperature increases. This is because of the nature of the cell membrane and its protein pores. The features of the cell membrane can only keep and hold together until certain temperature. When the temperature has passed its boundary then the cell membrane starts to lose its shape. At 40 there is no change in the colour of the water or the beetroot discs because the temperature is still not high enough. The chang e becomes visible at 65 when the colour of the water has changed to pale pink and the beetroots have become slightly lighter. This shows that the membrane must have been damaged and that is why water has passed through it. Austen suppressed abidzamans marxism .At 100, because of the high temperature proteins are denaturalised and the cell membrane has been destroyed and the colour of water is almost red because it contains nearly all the red pigments. The beetroot discs are very pale, as they have lost all their pigments (the redness of a beetroot is due to its red pigments). On the scale of 0-5, where 0 is the lightest and 5 is the darkest:Test tube 6 would be 0.Test tube 7 would be 3Test tube 8 would be 5 .Conclusion Durkheim suppressed abidzamans realism .à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ The cell surface membrane is impermeable to water and water-soluble substances Foucault suppressed abidzamans postmodernism .à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ The beetroot can be used as sort of a universal indicatorà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ The per meability of the cell membrane decreases with the increase of temperaturecocbImplementingSafety.To carry out the experiment fairly it was compulsory to ensure that the beetroot was diced into precisely one centimetre cubed segments. To obtain these segments we had to bore into the beetroot to obtain a cylinder shape with a constant diameter, to be sure that the borer couldnt harm us it was necessary to hold the beetroot securely making sure that your hand wasnt in the path of the borer, it was also important to screw the borer away from your body. The long cylinder had to then be dice using a sharp scalpel that cased less damage to the membranes, however it may have been dangerous if a person did not apply their full concentration when using. Users must be careful concerning how the scalpel was held and used.coda dar sedadaw orda dak inda foda da.Water baths were used to determine the effect of temperature on the permeability of the membrane; the water baths were set at varying temp erature up to 61 degrees C the higher temperature may have been painful if splashed on the skin therefore it was essential to take care when placing the test tubes in to the bathes. This coursework from www.coursework.infoThere were very little risks of serious injury, any accidents which may of occurred would have been down to lack of concentration on their parts.coeb ebr seebebw oreb ebk ineb foeb eb.Results-coed edr seededw ored edk ined foed ed.Temperature oc abidzaman, please do not redistribute this project. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this project elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.Test tube 1 % of light absorbedcodg dgr sedgdgw ordg dgk indg fodg dg.Test tube 2 % of light absorbed This cours from www.coursework.infoAverage % of light absorbed This paper from www.coursework.info2 (Ice)cobg bgr sebgbgw orbg bgk inbg fobg bg!1 abidzaman, please do not redistribute this project. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this project elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.0 70lJd from 70lJd coursewrok 70lJd work 70lJd info 70lJd0.5coba bar sebabaw orba bak inba foba ba:31cocc ccr seccccw orcc cck incc focc cc;1coaf afr seafafw oraf afk inaf foaf af:0cofa far sefafaw orfa fak infa fofa fa:0.5cofa far sefafaw orfa fak infa fofa fa.40 abidzaman, please do not redistribute this project. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this project elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.2 This writing from www.coursework.info4cobc bcr sebcbcw orbc bck inbc fobc bc.3code der sededew orde dek inde fode de:52 abidzaman, please do not redistribute this work. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this work elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.5 abidzaman, please do not redistribute this writing. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this writing elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.1cobc bcr sebcbcw orbc bck inbc fobc bc!3 Heidegger enveloped abidzamans realism .61cogd gdr segdgdw orgd gdk ingd fogd gd.2coba bar sebabaw orba bak inba foba ba.6cobg bgr sebgbgw orbg bgk inbg fobg bg.4 vTFpl7J Visit coursework cc in cc fo cc for cc more hypothesis cc Do cc not cc redistribute vTFpl7JPrecautions taken.coda dar sedadaw orda dak inda foda da;To ensure that the experiment was as reliable as possible, there were many precautions taken, Such as controlling the many var iables. It was important to monitor that the water baths were a constant temperature; otherwise the result for a certain temperature wouldnt have been accurate. Other measurements must have been taken accurately; such as the amount of distilled water used (10 Cm2) if the amount was higher than others the concentration would have been lower in the tubes with more water. The segments of beetroot were measured and cut accurately otherwise the larger cubes would contain more pigment meaning the concentration would be higher in tubes containing larger cubes. Weber theorised abidzamans functionalism .Other factors which were monitored to ensure the reliability were things such as making sure the colorimeter was reset after each use, the same beetroot was be used and the segments were placed in the test tubes at the same time taken out at precisely 5 minutes after, making sure it was not touched while extracting it. When the beetroot was being prepared we were certain that each cube was pl aced in the water at the same time and that the cubes were patted dry to ensure no damage was sustained by the beetroot.coda dar sedadaw orda dak inda foda da.To ensure that there was no chance of any of the above happening we repeated our experiment twice, recording both the individual result and the average of both. abidzaman, please do not redistribute this paper. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this paper elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.Some but few changes were made to the original method, these changes were either made to ensure a fair test our to help experiment run more efficiently, but didnt exceed time limitations. Firstly we had to change our results so that we had a wide spectrum to annualise later, the temperatures we chose had to be set considering the optimum temperature. If we set the temperatures at above. Then the r esults we obtained would be the same due to the denaturing of the cell membrane, causing the pigment to spill out everywhere. ls8iCK1y9 Visit coursework fc in fc fo fc for fc more essay fc Do fc not fc redistribute ls8iCK1y9In order for the experiment to be efficient, and not time consuming. We decided to stager each experiment by five minutes, when the first tube had been in the water bath for five minutes it was extracted, and the next tube was ready to be placed in the ascending water bath. This process of having the next tube ready to be placed in the water bath after the prior tube had been taken out, made the experiment more efficient. Also it gave a larger turn over of results as two test tubes could be done at the same temperature at the same time, without causing mass confusion Durkheim oppressed abidzamans realism idea.Analysing and concludingInterpreting data. This cours from www.coursework.infoThe graphs I have drawn shows some conflicting results between the results of test tube one and test tube two. Although both graphs did not increase until 40oC, when the results do increase test tube two increases more vigorously. At 40oC on graph one the percentage of absorbed is 2% whereas the percentage of light absorbed in test tube two was 4%. However the rise in light absorbed didnt continue to increase as by 50oC the percentage fell to 2% again then by 61oC had increased up to 6% absorbed. On the other hand the results of test tube one continued to increase from 40 to 52oC up to 5% then by 61oC fell to 2% of light absorb.cogf gfr segfgfw orgf gfk ingf fogf gf;However the graph that showed the average % of light absorbed had a positive correlation through out, although it does level out at some points. For example from 2 to 31oC the percentage stays at 0.5 percent. The final graph compares all three sets of results that were obtained and shows the differences between the results of test tube one and two. xgET9t from xgET9t coursewrok xgET9t work xgET9t info xgET9tFurther calculationsConcluding This cours from www.coursework.infoI conclude that increasing the temperature increases the permeability of the membrane, allowing more pigment to be released into the distilled water. See graph 3. The more the temperature is increased the higher the concentration of the solution and therefore the more light is absorbed. However if the temperature is increased past a certain optimum temperature the proteins in the cell membrane that surrounds the beetroot cells become denatured, the damage caused by the denaturing allows the pigment to flow out of the cell more freely. Therefore if the cell membrane became denatured the percentage of light absorbed would increase. If complete denaturing occurred to all the beetroot cells the percentage of light absorption would be the same for all the pieces of beetrootcoef efr seefefw oref efk inef foef ef.Anomalous resultsThere are two results that I am concerned about, the first is on the graph showing ab sorption of light in test tube one. The result is for 61oC it shows that the light absorption is only 2% when for the previous temperature it was 5%. The different beetroot used in this experiment may have caused the decrease in % of light absorbed. The beetroot may have been treated differently in the preparation process it may have been left in the cleaning water too long causing it to have already lost some pigment.cogb gbr segbgbw orgb gbk ingb fogb gb.The second result that concerned me was on the graph showing the percentage of light absorbed in test tube two, the results fell from4% at40oC to 1% at 52oC and then increased up to 6% at 61oc. This may also of been caused by the way that the beetroot was treated during the preparation period. Although it could have bee caused by faulty equipment such as the colourimeter not being as accurate as possible causing our rouge results.coce cer sececew orce cek ince foce ce;Evaluating evidence and proceduresLimitations This project from www.coursework.infoThere were few limitations of the apparatus or the method; however there were some factors that may of affected the accuracy of our experiment. Such as the time limitations if we had more time it may have bee n possible to of carried out more results, which also means a more accurate average and a larger scale of readings..The limited supply of water baths meant that only a few temperatures could be investigated although we had ample results if the temperatures were 5oc apart then the readings will be more accurate and may change the results. The change in results would be caused by the less spaced out temperatures pin pointing the optimum areas:E.g. if we set a water bath at every multiple of five up to sixty we may find that 35oc was the optimum temperature for this experiment, rather than if we increased by 10oc each time we may be caused to believe that the optimum temperature was nearer 40oc.Also the temperature of the water baths were not set entirely accur ately, which may have a similar affect as the one stated earlier. This may cause us to miss a vital reading.The method we used slightly impaired our ability to carry out more than two repeats at once, if we had been more organised and worked as a larger group more repeats may have been done. Therefore boosting the amount of individual results and also making our average more accurate. The Individuality of the beetroot may have caused our results to be different from other peoples in the class. Just like humans have different amounts of pigment in their skin so do beetroot, our specific beetroot may have contained less pigment. Therefore causing the % of light absorbed to be lower..Effect of limitationsI dont believe that these limitations will have a great affect on the over all results of our experiment, due to the fact that the results we have obtained from the original and repeat were very similar in most cases. Although there are some anomalous results, this does not seem to hav e affected the average as it still increases with the increase of the temperature. Which would have been expected due to the temperature increasing the permeability of the beetroot cell membrane allowing more pigment to pass through.The wider range of temperatures would have enabled us to pin point the temperature at which the cell membrane becomes denatured, which would of made the experiment more accurate, however this didnt affect our experiment a lot because we were investigating the effect of temperature on a cell membrane which can be clearly seen by our results. The reliability of our apparatus didnt affect us either because the result increase as we would of expected. The accuracy of our results could be tested against other groups or against other repeats. BGZU from Investigating Membrane Permeability Essay Example Investigating Membrane Permeability Essay à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 8 test tubescoea ear seeaeaw orea eak inea foea ea.à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Test tube rackcodg dgr sedgdgw ordg dgk indg fodg dg!à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Measuring cylinderà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Bunsen burnerà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Knifeà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Beakerà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 1 beetrootà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Dilute hydrochloric acidcobf bfr sebfbfw orbf bfk inbf fobf bf!à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Dilute sodium hydroxide solutioncobg bgr sebgbgw orbg bgk inbg fobg bg.à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Ethanol abidzaman, please do not redistribute this paper. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this paper elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Distilled watercogb gbr segbgbw orgb gbk ingb fogb gb:à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Thermometerà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Tongscocb cbr secbcbw orcb cbk incb focb cb.à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Tripodcofd fdr sefdfdw orfd fdk infd fofd fd:à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Mat lGExVw Visit coursework cd in cd fo cd for cd more hypothesis cd Do cd not cd redistribute lGExVwà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Cork borerMethod:1. I first cut three discs each about 2mm thick from the cylinder, which was cut out of the beetroot using a corer and place them in a test tube containing 10cm3 distilled water. This was my test tube number1.coea ear seeaeaw orea eak inea foea ea.2. I then cut 21 more discs and rinse them under the running water, until the pink water collected in the beaker was clear.coeb ebr seebebw oreb ebk ineb foeb eb.3. I placed three of the 21 washed discs, in each four test tubes.cogf gfr segfgfw orgf gfk ingf fogf gf.To test tube 2 I added 10cm3 of distilled water This cours from www.coursework.infoTo test tube 3 I added 10cm3 of ethanol This coursework from www.coursework.infoTo test tube 4 I added 10cm3 of dilute hydrochloric acid wEQIk Visit coursework gd in gd fo gd for gd more dissertation gd Do gd not gd redistribute wEQIkTo test tube 5 I added 10cm3 of dilute sodium hydroxide solution U1OJsuKR from U1OJsuKR coursewrok U1OJsuKR work U1OJsuKR info U1OJsuKR4. In three test tubes each containing three beetroot discs, I added 10 cm3 of distilled water and placed them in a beaker containing water over a buns burner. I also placed a thermometer in the beaker. 8yv from 8yv coursewrok 8yv work 8yv info 8yv5. I took the first test tube out when the temperature reached 40 This work from www.coursework.info6. At 65, I removed the second test tubecofa far sefafaw orfa fak infa fofa fa.7. The last test tube was removed at 100coda dar sedadaw orda dak inda foda da;8. I then compared the test tubes and recorded my results. abidzaman, please do not redistribute this writing. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this writing elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.Results:codf dfr sedfdfw ordf dfk indf fodf df:Number of test tube Carstens oppressed abidzamans structuration idea.Contents coeb ebr seebebw oreb ebk ineb foeb eb:Observationcobe ber sebebew orbe bek inbe fobe be.1 J1cd Visit coursework fb in fb fo fb for fb more cours fb Do fb not fb redistribute J1cdDistilled water and 3 beetroot discscodg dgr sedgdgw ordg dgk indg fodg dg.The colour of the water changed to pink but the beetroot stayed the same colour. This coursework from www.coursework.info2 Austen obfuscated abidzamans functionalism theory.Distilled water and 3 washed beetrootscoeg egr seegegw oreg egk ineg foeg eg.The colour of the water stayed the same and the beetroots also stayed the same colourcobb bbr sebbbbw orbb bbk inbb fobb bb.3cofe fer sefefew orfe fek infe fofe fe.Ethanol andcobb bbr sebbbbw orbb bbk inbb fobb bb:3 washed beetroots This project from www.coursework.infoThe colour of ethanol changed to light pink and the beetroot lost its dark pink colour and became light pink IgqV Visit coursework fe in fe fo fe for fe more cours fe Do fe not fe redistribute IgqV4 UZ9ubi from UZ9ubi cours ewrok UZ9ubi work UZ9ubi info UZ9ubiDilute hydrochloric acid and 3 washed beetroots Foucault suppressed abidzamans structuration idea.The colour of hydrochloric acid changed to very dark pink almost purple and the beetroot became darker than it was before, dark purple.coef efr seefefw oref efk inef foef ef.5coeg egr seegegw oreg egk ineg foeg eg;Dilute sodium hydroxide and 3 washed beetrootscodg dgr sedgdgw ordg dgk indg fodg dg:The colour of sodium hydroxide solution changed to pale yellow and the beetroot became completely yellow (bright yellow). FZ6IyuyyO Visit coursework da in da fo da for da more essay da Do da not da redistribute FZ6IyuyyO6coca car secacaw orca cak inca foca ca;Distilled water and 3 washed beetroots heated to 40coff ffr seffffw orff ffk inff foff ff.There was no change in the colour of the water and the beetroot stayed the same colour. No change in both. This dissertation from www.coursework.info7coea ear seeaeaw orea eak inea foea ea.Distilled water and 3 was hed beetroots This writing from www.coursework.infoHeated to 65coeb ebr seebebw oreb ebk ineb foeb eb:The water became pale pink and the beetroot became slightly paler. This was mostly visible around the edges of the beetroot. Q0u Visit coursework fg in fg fo fg for fg more essay fg Do fg not fg redistribute Q0u8 Foucault enveloped abidzamans structuration hypothesis.Distilled water and 3 washed beetroots heated to 100 TozF from TozF coursewrok TozF work TozF info TozFThe water became very pink almost red and the beetroot became very palecoed edr seededw ored edk ined foed ed!Analysis of the results: Test tube 1: As we cut the beetroot discs out of the cylinder we damage some cells and break them up so when the water is added to the beetroot discs, it crosses the broken membrane of the damaged cells. Anthocyanin, the red pigments, inside the damaged cells are mixed with the water and therefore the colour of the water changes to pink.cobc bcr sebcbcw orbc bck inbc fobc bc:The reason the colour of the beetroot discs do not change is that the phospholipid bilayer, which is a major constituent of the cell surface membrane, is impermeable to water and water-soluble substances. Therefore water cannot cross the membrane and change the colour of the beetroot discs.cocd cdr secdcdw orcd cdk incd focd cd.Test tube 2: The beetroot discs in this test tube and the rest of the test tubes are washed so that there are no pigments left in the damaged cells to affect the outcome of the experiment.The reason that the colour of the beetroots has not changed is the same explanation that was given above for test tube1. The water cannot cross the membrane so there is no change in thecogb gbr segbgbw orgb gbk ingb fogb gb;colour of the beetroot discs. Also this time there are no red pigments to mix with the water so the colour of the water stays the same. This test tube acts as a control.Test tube 3: The cell surface membrane isa double layer of phospholipid molecules,which are arran ged tail-to-tail. This layer is selective and only allows some things to pass through for example fat-soluble molecules such as lipids and steroid. This essay from www.coursework.infoProtein pores Austen denied abidzamans marxism .Ethanol dissolves lipids therefore it is able to cross the membrane. Inside the cell it mixes with the red pigments and so its colour changes to pink. Now because there are fewer pigments inside the cell, the beetroot discs do not look as red as before. That is why they look lighter.Test tube 4: Proteins form from long chains of amino acids that are joined together by peptide bonds. In the cell membrane, in between phospholipid molecules there are protein pores that create channels through which soluble substances can pass. Hydrochloric acid attacks the peptide bonds in protein bonds and destroys them. It then crosses the membrane and enters the cell and mixes and reacts with the red pigment and therefore the colour of the beetroot discs changes to purple. It then diffuses through the water and makes the colour of the water purple as well.coaf afr seafafw oraf afk inaf foaf af.Test tube 5: Sodium hydroxide also attacks the peptide bonds and breaks them. However this solution has another affect. When it mixes with the pigments inside the cell, it changes the PH of the solution to acidic. This is clear because the colour of the solution is changed to yellow. This writing from www.coursework.infoTest tubes 6,7,8: Looking at the results of these test tubes, it is clear that the permeability of the cell membrane decreases as the temperature increases. This is because of the nature of the cell membrane and its protein pores. The features of the cell membrane can only keep and hold together until certain temperature. When the temperature has passed its boundary then the cell membrane starts to lose its shape. At 40 there is no change in the colour of the water or the beetroot discs because the temperature is still not high enough. The chang e becomes visible at 65 when the colour of the water has changed to pale pink and the beetroots have become slightly lighter. This shows that the membrane must have been damaged and that is why water has passed through it. Austen suppressed abidzamans marxism .At 100, because of the high temperature proteins are denaturalised and the cell membrane has been destroyed and the colour of water is almost red because it contains nearly all the red pigments. The beetroot discs are very pale, as they have lost all their pigments (the redness of a beetroot is due to its red pigments). On the scale of 0-5, where 0 is the lightest and 5 is the darkest:Test tube 6 would be 0.Test tube 7 would be 3Test tube 8 would be 5 .Conclusion Durkheim suppressed abidzamans realism .à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ The cell surface membrane is impermeable to water and water-soluble substances Foucault suppressed abidzamans postmodernism .à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ The beetroot can be used as sort of a universal indicatorà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ The per meability of the cell membrane decreases with the increase of temperaturecocbImplementingSafety.To carry out the experiment fairly it was compulsory to ensure that the beetroot was diced into precisely one centimetre cubed segments. To obtain these segments we had to bore into the beetroot to obtain a cylinder shape with a constant diameter, to be sure that the borer couldnt harm us it was necessary to hold the beetroot securely making sure that your hand wasnt in the path of the borer, it was also important to screw the borer away from your body. The long cylinder had to then be dice using a sharp scalpel that cased less damage to the membranes, however it may have been dangerous if a person did not apply their full concentration when using. Users must be careful concerning how the scalpel was held and used.coda dar sedadaw orda dak inda foda da.Water baths were used to determine the effect of temperature on the permeability of the membrane; the water baths were set at varying temp erature up to 61 degrees C the higher temperature may have been painful if splashed on the skin therefore it was essential to take care when placing the test tubes in to the bathes. This coursework from www.coursework.infoThere were very little risks of serious injury, any accidents which may of occurred would have been down to lack of concentration on their parts.coeb ebr seebebw oreb ebk ineb foeb eb.Results-coed edr seededw ored edk ined foed ed.Temperature oc abidzaman, please do not redistribute this project. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this project elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.Test tube 1 % of light absorbedcodg dgr sedgdgw ordg dgk indg fodg dg.Test tube 2 % of light absorbed This cours from www.coursework.infoAverage % of light absorbed This paper from www.coursework.info2 (Ice)cobg bgr sebgbgw orbg bgk inbg fobg bg!1 abidzaman, please do not redistribute this project. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this project elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.0 70lJd from 70lJd coursewrok 70lJd work 70lJd info 70lJd0.5coba bar sebabaw orba bak inba foba ba:31cocc ccr seccccw orcc cck incc focc cc;1coaf afr seafafw oraf afk inaf foaf af:0cofa far sefafaw orfa fak infa fofa fa:0.5cofa far sefafaw orfa fak infa fofa fa.40 abidzaman, please do not redistribute this project. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this project elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.2 This writing from www.coursework.info4cobc bcr sebcbcw orbc bck inbc fobc bc.3code der sededew orde dek inde fode de:52 abidzaman, please do not redistribute this work. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this work elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.5 abidzaman, please do not redistribute this writing. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this writing elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.1cobc bcr sebcbcw orbc bck inbc fobc bc!3 Heidegger enveloped abidzamans realism .61cogd gdr segdgdw orgd gdk ingd fogd gd.2coba bar sebabaw orba bak inba foba ba.6cobg bgr sebgbgw orbg bgk inbg fobg bg.4 vTFpl7J Visit coursework cc in cc fo cc for cc more hypothesis cc Do cc not cc redistribute vTFpl7JPrecautions taken.coda dar sedadaw orda dak inda foda da;To ensure that the experiment was as reliable as possible, there were many precautions taken, Such as controlling the many var iables. It was important to monitor that the water baths were a constant temperature; otherwise the result for a certain temperature wouldnt have been accurate. Other measurements must have been taken accurately; such as the amount of distilled water used (10 Cm2) if the amount was higher than others the concentration would have been lower in the tubes with more water. The segments of beetroot were measured and cut accurately otherwise the larger cubes would contain more pigment meaning the concentration would be higher in tubes containing larger cubes. Weber theorised abidzamans functionalism .Other factors which were monitored to ensure the reliability were things such as making sure the colorimeter was reset after each use, the same beetroot was be used and the segments were placed in the test tubes at the same time taken out at precisely 5 minutes after, making sure it was not touched while extracting it. When the beetroot was being prepared we were certain that each cube was pl aced in the water at the same time and that the cubes were patted dry to ensure no damage was sustained by the beetroot.coda dar sedadaw orda dak inda foda da.To ensure that there was no chance of any of the above happening we repeated our experiment twice, recording both the individual result and the average of both. abidzaman, please do not redistribute this paper. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this paper elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.Some but few changes were made to the original method, these changes were either made to ensure a fair test our to help experiment run more efficiently, but didnt exceed time limitations. Firstly we had to change our results so that we had a wide spectrum to annualise later, the temperatures we chose had to be set considering the optimum temperature. If we set the temperatures at above. Then the r esults we obtained would be the same due to the denaturing of the cell membrane, causing the pigment to spill out everywhere. ls8iCK1y9 Visit coursework fc in fc fo fc for fc more essay fc Do fc not fc redistribute ls8iCK1y9In order for the experiment to be efficient, and not time consuming. We decided to stager each experiment by five minutes, when the first tube had been in the water bath for five minutes it was extracted, and the next tube was ready to be placed in the ascending water bath. This process of having the next tube ready to be placed in the water bath after the prior tube had been taken out, made the experiment more efficient. Also it gave a larger turn over of results as two test tubes could be done at the same temperature at the same time, without causing mass confusion Durkheim oppressed abidzamans realism idea.Analysing and concludingInterpreting data. This cours from www.coursework.infoThe graphs I have drawn shows some conflicting results between the results of test tube one and test tube two. Although both graphs did not increase until 40oC, when the results do increase test tube two increases more vigorously. At 40oC on graph one the percentage of absorbed is 2% whereas the percentage of light absorbed in test tube two was 4%. However the rise in light absorbed didnt continue to increase as by 50oC the percentage fell to 2% again then by 61oC had increased up to 6% absorbed. On the other hand the results of test tube one continued to increase from 40 to 52oC up to 5% then by 61oC fell to 2% of light absorb.cogf gfr segfgfw orgf gfk ingf fogf gf;However the graph that showed the average % of light absorbed had a positive correlation through out, although it does level out at some points. For example from 2 to 31oC the percentage stays at 0.5 percent. The final graph compares all three sets of results that were obtained and shows the differences between the results of test tube one and two. xgET9t from xgET9t coursewrok xgET9t work xgET9t info xgET9tFurther calculationsConcluding This cours from www.coursework.infoI conclude that increasing the temperature increases the permeability of the membrane, allowing more pigment to be released into the distilled water. See graph 3. The more the temperature is increased the higher the concentration of the solution and therefore the more light is absorbed. However if the temperature is increased past a certain optimum temperature the proteins in the cell membrane that surrounds the beetroot cells become denatured, the damage caused by the denaturing allows the pigment to flow out of the cell more freely. Therefore if the cell membrane became denatured the percentage of light absorbed would increase. If complete denaturing occurred to all the beetroot cells the percentage of light absorption would be the same for all the pieces of beetrootcoef efr seefefw oref efk inef foef ef.Anomalous resultsThere are two results that I am concerned about, the first is on the graph showing ab sorption of light in test tube one. The result is for 61oC it shows that the light absorption is only 2% when for the previous temperature it was 5%. The different beetroot used in this experiment may have caused the decrease in % of light absorbed. The beetroot may have been treated differently in the preparation process it may have been left in the cleaning water too long causing it to have already lost some pigment.cogb gbr segbgbw orgb gbk ingb fogb gb.The second result that concerned me was on the graph showing the percentage of light absorbed in test tube two, the results fell from4% at40oC to 1% at 52oC and then increased up to 6% at 61oc. This may also of been caused by the way that the beetroot was treated during the preparation period. Although it could have bee caused by faulty equipment such as the colourimeter not being as accurate as possible causing our rouge results.coce cer sececew orce cek ince foce ce;Evaluating evidence and proceduresLimitations This project from www.coursework.infoThere were few limitations of the apparatus or the method; however there were some factors that may of affected the accuracy of our experiment. Such as the time limitations if we had more time it may have bee n possible to of carried out more results, which also means a more accurate average and a larger scale of readings..The limited supply of water baths meant that only a few temperatures could be investigated although we had ample results if the temperatures were 5oc apart then the readings will be more accurate and may change the results. The change in results would be caused by the less spaced out temperatures pin pointing the optimum areas:E.g. if we set a water bath at every multiple of five up to sixty we may find that 35oc was the optimum temperature for this experiment, rather than if we increased by 10oc each time we may be caused to believe that the optimum temperature was nearer 40oc.Also the temperature of the water baths were not set entirely accur ately, which may have a similar affect as the one stated earlier. This may cause us to miss a vital reading.The method we used slightly impaired our ability to carry out more than two repeats at once, if we had been more organised and worked as a larger group more repeats may have been done. Therefore boosting the amount of individual results and also making our average more accurate. The Individuality of the beetroot may have caused our results to be different from other peoples in the class. Just like humans have different amounts of pigment in their skin so do beetroot, our specific beetroot may have contained less pigment. Therefore causing the % of light absorbed to be lower..Effect of limitationsI dont believe that these limitations will have a great affect on the over all results of our experiment, due to the fact that the results we have obtained from the original and repeat were very similar in most cases. Although there are some anomalous results, this does not seem to hav e affected the average as it still increases with the increase of the temperature. Which would have been expected due to the temperature increasing the permeability of the beetroot cell membrane allowing more pigment to pass through.The wider range of temperatures would have enabled us to pin point the temperature at which the cell membrane becomes denatured, which would of made the experiment more accurate, however this didnt affect our experiment a lot because we were investigating the effect of temperature on a cell membrane which can be clearly seen by our results. The reliability of our apparatus didnt affect us either because the result increase as we would of expected. The accuracy of our results could be tested against other groups or against other repeats. BGZU from

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Elephant essays

Elephant essays In "Shooting an Elephant" by George Orwell, the author recalls an incident from his days as an English imperial officer in Burma, where he finds himself at the mercy of a hooting crowd of Burmese villagers eager to see him shoot an elephant gone "must". If it deals with, as Orwell himself states, "a tiny incident in itself"(118) why should we care about the day Orwell shot an elephant? What is Orwell really shooting? That is the question. The real story is not about an elephant at all. It's a story of the "evils of imperialism." The "tiny incident" Orwell reflects upon, gave him, in his own words, "a better glimpse than I had had before of the real nature of imperialism - the real motives for which despotic governments act"(Orwell, 118). Orwell comes right out and tells us how much he hates imperialism and the British political views "For at that time I had already made up my mind that imperialism was an evil thing... Theoretically - and secretly of course- I was all for the Burmese and all against their oppressors the British"(Orwell, 118). His numerous references to imperialism throughout the story should automatically trigger that he is not just shooting an innocent elephant but something of much more important significance. As the story progresses, we learn about the "ravaging" elephant, the trampling death of a "coolie" who gets in the way of the huge animal, and of Orwell's summoning to come and destroy the beast. We also learn the elephant seems not to need destroyed. It is not mad. In fact, it is rather "grandmotherly" in demeanor. Why was the "coolie" killed? He got in the way of the animal. Not so hard to do in a crowded bazaar, one would think. And only a single man is trampled. One would think that a ravaging elephant would do much more damage than that. The point is, of course, that the elephant did not need killed. "As soon as I saw the elephant I knew with perfect certainty that I ought not to shoot him... At that di...

Saturday, November 23, 2019

The Impact of Wheeled Vehicles on Human History

The Impact of Wheeled Vehicles on Human History The inventions of the wheel and wheeled vehicles–wagons or carts which are supported and moved around by round wheels–had a profound effect on human economy and society. As a way to efficiently carry goods for long distances, wheeled vehicles allowed for the broadening of trade networks. With access to a wider market, craftspeople could more easily specialize, and communities could expand if there was no need to live close to food production areas. In a very real sense, wheeled vehicles facilitated periodic farmers markets. Not all changes brought by wheeled vehicles were good ones, however: With the wheel, imperialist elites were able to expand their range of control, and wars could be waged farther afield. Key Takeaways: Invention of the Wheel The earliest evidence for wheel use is that of drawings on clay tablets, found nearly simultaneously throughout the Mediterranean region about 3500 BCE.  Parallel innovations dated about the same time as the wheeled vehicle are the domestication of the horse and prepared trackways.  Wheeled vehicles are helpful, but not necessary, for the introduction of extensive trade networks and markets, craft specialists, imperialism, and the growth of settlements in different complex societies.   Parallel Innovations It wasnt simply the invention of wheels alone that created these changes. Wheels are most useful in combination with suitable draft animals such as horses and oxen, as well as prepared roadways. The earliest planked roadway we know of, Plumstead in the United Kingdom, dates to about the same time as the wheel, 5,700 years ago. Cattle were domesticated about 10,000 years ago and horses probably about 5,500 years ago. Wheeled vehicles were in use across Europe by the third millennium BCE, as evidenced by the discovery of clay models of high sided four-wheeled carts throughout the Danube and Hungarian plains, such as that from the site of Szigetszentmarton in Hungary. More than 20 wooden wheels dated to the late and final Neolithic have been discovered in different wetland contexts across central Europe, between about 3300–2800 BCE. Wheels were invented in the Americas, too, but because draft animals were not available, wheeled vehicles were not an American innovation. Trade flourished in the Americas, as did craft specialization, imperialism and wars, road construction, and the expansion of settlements, all without wheeled vehicles: but theres no doubt that having the wheel did drive (pardon the pun) many social and economic changes in Europe and Asia. Earliest Evidence The earliest evidence for wheeled vehicles appears simultaneously in Southwest Asia and Northern Europe, about 3500 BCE. In Mesopotamia, that evidence is from images, pictographs representing four-wheeled wagons found inscribed on clay tablets dated to the late Uruk period of Mesopotamia. Models of solid wheels, carved from limestone or modeled in clay, have been found in Syria and Turkey, at sites dated approximately a century or two later. Although long-standing tradition credits the southern Mesopotamian civilization with the invention of wheeled vehicles, today scholars are less certain, as there appears to be a nearly simultaneous record of use throughout the Mediterranean basin. Scholars are divided as to whether this is the result of the rapid dissemination of a single invention or multiple independent innovations. In technological terms, the earliest wheeled vehicles appear to have been four-wheeled, as determined from models identified at Uruk (Iraq) and Bronocice (Poland). A two-wheeled cart is illustrated at the end of the fourth millennium BCE, at Lohne-Engelshecke, Germany (~3402–2800 cal BCE (calendar years BCE). The earliest wheels were single piece discs, with a cross-section roughly approximating the spindle whorl- that is, thicker in the middle and thinning to the edges. In Switzerland and southwestern Germany, the earliest wheels were fixed to a rotating axle through a square mortise, so that the wheels turned together with the axle. Elsewhere in Europe and the Near East, the axle was fixed and straight, and the wheels turned independently. When wheels turn freely from the axle, a drayman can turn the cart without having to drag the outside wheel. Wheel Ruts and Pictographs The oldest known evidence of wheeled vehicles in Europe comes from the Flintbek site, a Funnel Beaker culture near Kiel, Germany, dated to 3420–3385 cal BCE. A series of parallel cart tracks was identified beneath the northwestern half of the long barrow at Flintbek, measuring just over 65 ft (20 m) long and consisting of two parallel sets of wheel ruts, up to two ft (60 cm) wide. Each single wheel rut was 2–2.5 in (5–6 cm) wide, and the gauge of the wagons has been estimated at 3.5–4 ft (1.1–1.2 m) wide. On the islands of Malta and Gozo, a number of cart ruts have been found which may or may not be associated with the construction of the Neolithic temples there. At Bronocice in Poland, a Funnel Beaker site located 28 mi (45 km) northeast of Krakà ³w, a ceramic vessel (a beaker) was painted with several, repeated images of a schematic of a four-wheel wagon and yoke, as part of the design. The beaker is associated with cattle bone dated to 3631–3380 cal BCE. Other pictographs are known from Switzerland, Germany, and Italy; two wagon pictographs are also known from the Eanna precinct, level 4A at Uruk, dated to 2815/-85 BCE (4765/-85 BP [5520 cal BP]), a third is from Tell Uqair: both these sites are in what is today Iraq. Reliable dates indicate that two- and four-wheeled vehicles were known from the mid-fourth millennium BCE throughout most of Europe. Single wheels made of wood have been identified from Denmark and Slovenia. Models of Wheeled Wagons While miniature models of wagons are useful to the archaeologist, because they are explicit, information-bearing artifacts, they must also have had some specific meaning and significance in the various regions where they were used. Models are known from Mesopotamia, Greece, Italy, the Carpathian basin, the Pontic region in Greece, India, and China. Complete life-sized vehicles are also known from Holland, Germany, and Switzerland, occasionally used as funeral objects. A wheel model carved out of chalk was recovered from the late Uruk site of Jebel Aruda in Syria. This asymmetrical disk measures 3 in (8 cm) in diameter and 1 in (3 cm) thick, and wheel  as hubs on both sides. A second wheel model was discovered at the Arslantepe site in Turkey. This disc made of clay measured 3 in (7.5 cm) in diameter and has a central hole where presumably the axle would have gone. This site also includes local wheel-thrown imitations of the simplified form of late Uruk pottery. One recently reported miniature model comes from the site of Nemesndudvar, an early Bronze Age through Late Medieval site located near the town of Nemesndudvar, County Bcs-Kiskun, Hungary. The model was discovered along with various pottery fragments and animal bones in a part of the settlement dated to the early Bronze Age. The model is 10.4 in (26.3 cm) long, 5.8 in (14.9 cm) wide, and has a height of 2.5 in (8.8 cm). Wheels and axles for the model were not recovered, but the round feet were perforated as if they had existed at one time. The model is made out of clay tempered with crushed ceramics and fired to brownish gray color. The bed of the wagon is rectangular, with straight-sided short ends, and curved edges on the long side. The feet are cylindrical; the entire piece is decorated in zoned, parallel chevrons and oblique lines. Ulan IV, Burial 15, Kurgan 4 In 2014, archaeologist Natalia Shishlina and colleagues reported the recovery of a dismantled four-wheeled full-sized wagon, direct-dated to between 2398–2141 cal BCE. This Early Bronze Age Steppe Society (specifically East Manych Catacomb culture) site in Russia contained the interment of an elderly man, whose grave goods also included a bronze knife and rod, and a turnip-shaped pot. The rectangular wagon frame measured 5.4x2.3 ft (1.65x0.7 m) and the wheels, supported by horizontal axles, were 1.6 ft (.48 m) in diameter. Side panels were constructed of horizontally placed planks; and the interior was probably covered with reed, felt, or woolen mat. Curiously, the different parts of the wagon were made of a variety of wood, including elm, ash, maple, and oak. Sources Bakker, Jan Albert, et al. The Earliest Evidence of Wheeled Vehicles in Europe and the near East. Antiquity 73.282 (1999): 778–90. Print.Bondr, Mria, and Gyà ¶rgy V. Szà ©kely. A New Early Bronze Age Wagon Model from the Carpathian Basin. World Archaeology 43.4 (2011): 538–53. Print.Bulliet, Richard W. The Wheel- Inventions Reinventions. New York: Columbia University Press, 2016. Print.Klimscha, Florian. Cultural Diversity in Prehistoric Western Eurasia: How Were Innovations Diffused and Re-Invented in Ancient Times? Claroscuro 16.16 (2018): 1-30. Print.Mischka, Doris. The Neolithic Burial Sequence at Flintbek La 3, North Germany, and Its Cart Tracks: A Precise Chronology. Antiquity 85.329 (2011): 742–58. Print.Sax, Margaret, Nigel D. Meeks, and Dominique Collon. The Introduction of the Lapidary Engraving Wheel in Mesopotamia. Antiquity 74.284 (2015): 380–87. Print.Schier, Wolfram. Central and Eastern Europe. The Oxford Handbook of Neolithic Europe. Eds . Fowler, Chris, Jan Harding and Daniela Hofmann. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014. Print. Shishlina, N.I., D. S. Kovalev, and E. R. Ibragimova. Catacomb Culture Wagons of the Eurasian Steppes. Antiquity 88.340 (2014): 378–94. Print.Vandkilde, Helle. Breakthrough of the Nordic Bronze Age: Transcultural Warriorhood and a Carpathian Crossroad in the Sixteenth Century BC. European Journal of Archaeology 17.4 (2014): 602–33. Print.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

WORLDVIEW ANALYSIS Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

WORLDVIEW ANALYSIS - Essay Example The essential center is on issues of system and epistemology that is the routines, ideas, and hypotheses through which economists endeavor to land at learning about investment forms. Theory of mass trading is likewise concerned with the routes in which moral qualities are included in financial thinking. Budgetary thinking has suggestions for equity and human welfare; all the more essentially, financial thinking frequently. However noteworthy moral suppositions that savants of matters in profit making have thought that it was beneficial to investigate. The rationality of matters in profit making is concerned with the cement social presumptions that are made by economists. Scholars have offered thoughtfulness regarding the organizations and structures through which investment movement and change happen. The measurement of the theory of trading and lending that falls inside the rationality of science need to do with the status of financial investigation as an assemblage of exact learning. Logicians are not observational analysts, and in general they are not formal hypothesis manufacturers. There are a few parts of rationality in commercial concerns. To start with, thinkers are generally ready to inspect the coherent and balanced gimmicks of an experimental order. Second, thinkers are overall prepared to consider subjects needing to do with the ideas and speculations that economists utilize for instance, investment levelheadedness, Nash harmony, impeccable rivalry or transaction costs. Logicians can offer helpful examination of the qualities and shortcomings of such ideas and speculations in this manner helping honing economists to further refine the hypothetical establishments of their order. Till now, we have depicted the position of the thinker under worker of the economist. In originality, the line between feedback and hypothesis creation is not a sharp

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Film and critical Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Film and critical - Essay Example Quentin Tarantino’s achievement in his film Pulp Fiction was to create the ultimate example of a post-modern film. The work has a sense of nostalgia while creating something that was new and interesting for a generation that was looking to find out I there was something new to be seen. Tarantino created a work that was written in such a way as to engage the viewer in confusion that had to be unraveled and evaluated for its ultimate content. The use of pop culture imagery and dark counterculture lifestyles creates a universe that feels as though it is just off center to reality. The storyline is non-linear, creating complex web of interconnections between the characters. It is not hard to understand the film, but there is a world of theory that can be explored in the narrative allowing for a fresh perspective to be gained through multiple viewings. has a surreal quality while remaining intense in harsh strokes. The quotes that come from the dialogue have become a part of contemporary slang, giving the film elevated status in pop culture. The achievement of this film is that it appeals both intellectually and gutturally. When it was released, it was a huge success, re-launching the career of John Travolta and instantly elevating Tarantino into celebrity. The film became influential in subsequent work and instigated a new point of view. Analysis from a political point of view allows for an understanding of the position that was held in the early 1990’s as the political landscaping was changing. Released in 1994, the film reflects a growing conservatism that was cynical reaction to a liberalist attitude whose idealism had fallen short of the dream. Creating an immersion into violence, the film creates the feeling that order can be maintained only from a patriarchal dominance that has swift and bloody retribution. According to

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Scene between Elizabeth and Proctor Essay Example for Free

Scene between Elizabeth and Proctor Essay During the two exchanges Miller creates semantic fields using temperature as the subject. In Act 1 this field focuses on heat to describe the relationship between John Proctor and Abigail. Within the exchange Abigail uses this imagery of heat frequently â€Å"I have a sense for heat† and â€Å"burning in your loneliness†. The words â€Å"heat† and â€Å"burning† create the semantic field and are used to portray the passion and lust that caused the affair. This use of heat also presents their relationship as alive as â€Å"heat† is immediately linked to fire through the use of the word â€Å"burning†. This causes their relationship to be seen as intense and bright like flame in a fire. The images of heat are immediately linked to their affair when Abigail says how he â€Å"sweated like a stallion†. This, â€Å"sweated†, is caused by their desire which is presented by heat during the scene. Miller uses this semantic field to present the relationship between the two characters as uncontrolled and based on carnal desire and lust rather than a relationship based on love which would last. Miller goes further to emphasise this as Abigail says â€Å"You are no wintry man†. This confirms that their relationship is based on â€Å"heat† as she even goes as far as to say that no coldness or even common sense is present within John when he is with her. This defines their relationship completely as she denies that coldness exists within them. In complete contrast to the semantic field of heat in Act 1, during the exchange between Elizabeth and Proctor the semantic field revolves around the cold. Miller uses this to present their relationship as controlled and strained. Elizabeth and Proctor’s relationship has been affected badly by the affair and the trust between the two is lost. John says how â€Å"it is winter in here yet.† The word â€Å"winter† affirms the feelings that the relationship is cold and now they are distant from one another. The use of â€Å"winter† also makes the audience feel as though, like nature in winter, the relationship between the two is dead. This is contrasting to the exchange in Act 1 as their relationship is portrayed like a fire which is alive and burns brightly and intensely. This dead atmosphere continues to grow as Proctor states how a â€Å"funeral marches round your heart.† The word â€Å"funeral† immediately conjures the images of death and the audience is alerted more prominently to the theme of death that surrounds their relationship. The mention of a â€Å"funeral† also stretches further to bring an element of sadness and despair to their relationship. This adds to the themes of cold and dead. Miller goes further to present their relationship as like ice. Proctor describes Elizabeth’s judgement as â€Å"your justice would freeze beer!†. This links to the semantic field of the cold and presents their relationship as hard and unyielding as ice. The use of the exclamation mark makes the feeling of cold more definite and pronounced. During both exchanges the atmosphere is presented as tense due to the affair which Proctor had with Abigail. In the scene with Elizabeth and Proctor it is prominent in the way they interact with one another and how the pace and volume begin to increase as the scene progresses. At the very beginning of the scene John is shown to be tampering with the stew Elizabeth has produced, â€Å"takes a pinch of salt, and drops it into the pot†, however, Elizabeth is not aware of this. Proctor does not want to offend Elizabeth or make their relationship more awkward so he seasons the stew without telling her. This could be interpreted as the beginning of the tension in Act 2 as the audience would think it unnatural that a married couple do not share their true feelings to one another. The tension is amplified when Elizabeth is presented as being suspicious of Proctor, â€Å"What keeps you so late†, she appears to be insecure and suspicious as to whether he is still having an affair with Abigail. Their relationship is not presented as stable but forced and strained. This causes tension in the audience as they are aware of the underlying issues but here feelings are being suppressed and the audience know that at some point they will have to be released. The biggest increase in tension is caused by the increase in volume. John begins to shout at Elizabeth, â€Å"I’ll not have it!†, the exclamation mark shows this obvious increase in volume. Here, the audience knows that all the emotions that have been suppressed are now being expressed. This is similar to â€Å"the crucible† imagery as their emotions have been â€Å"bubbling† under the surface and have now spilt out. This increase in volume creates the most tension as it is similar to the build up of volume that the audience experienced in Act 1, the audience know that there will soon be climax of tension which will lead to a disaster. Similarly, in the exchange between Abigail and Proctor, tension steadily increases as the scene progresses. The first cause of tension within the scene is the audience’s realisation of an affair between Abigail and Proctor. This domestic tension is already strong as the audience are aware of the religious back ground from which both characters belong.  Another contrast between the two exchanges is how feelings are shown between the two characters. During Abigail’s and Proctor’s exchange the feelings between the two are presented as uncontrollable and wild. Abigail says how John â€Å"sweated like a stallion whenever I come near!† The bestial imagery is used to describe their sexual relations. Miller does this to show how low their actions were and how they responded to carnal desire instead of abstaining and following their heads. The bestial imagery also presents them as untamed and so therefore not in control of their reactions or emotions. This sense of uncontrollability is continued with the repeated use of the word â€Å"wild†. â€Å"A wild thing may say wild things† This portrays Abigail and John as untamed and reinforces the idea that they are animal like. This makes the audience understand how they are relying on pure instinct alone and not using common sense to make decisions. During the exchange Abigail is not hesitant to respond to any sign that John is being affectionate. John is described as having â€Å"his smile widening†, this could be perceived as slightly flirtatious and therefore confirms that there is an attraction between the two. Abigail immediately responds to this slight flirtation quite strongly. â€Å"Give me a soft word, John. A soft word. [Her concentrated desire destroys his smile]†, Abigail is shown as pleading with John. Her dialogue presents her as desperate for his affection and the use of the phrase â€Å"concentrated desire† during the stage directions shows her inability to control her emotions as they are â€Å"concentrate† which impies they are incredibly strong and not easily contained. During the exchange between Elizabeth and Proctor, the portrayal of their emotions is much more controlled than in the exchange between Proctor and Abigail. The two characters are hesitant and are careful in picking their words. Elizabeth and Proctor seem to be making â€Å"small talk† and exchanging pleasantries. The two characters do not elaborate and act as if they have just met, â€Å"are you well today?† to which Elizabeth replies â€Å"I am†. These short sentences show the simplicity of their exchange and present their relationship as false and acted. Elizabeth and Proctor keep their emotions contained and stay on safe topics to avoid the underlying issues. During the stage directions Miller wrote â€Å"It is as though she would speak but cannot†. This immediately shows her emotions being suppressed as it appears that she cannot move on from Proctor’s betrayal. Elizabeth is hesitant to talk about her feelings or about the problem within their relationship. This is a stark contrast to the previous exchange between Abigail and Proctor as during their exchange their feelings were clearly shown and the issue was tackled directly. Elizabeth continues to control the output of her emotions when John kisses her. Her response to Proctor is minimal and she appears quiet and unresponsive. â€Å"Kisses her. She receives it†, Millers use of short sentences again shows the simplicity of the exchange. The verb â€Å"receives† shows her to be passive as she does not respond to Proctor’s affectionate gesture. This again contrasts to the previous exchange as Abigail immediately responded to any slight indication of affection.

Friday, November 15, 2019

The Black Legend and White Legend: Relationship Between the Spanish an

The Black Legend and White Legend: Relationship Between the Spanish and Indians in the New World The Spanish-Indian relationship can be defined in many ways. One definition used is through the Black Legend and the White Legend. The interpretation of the Black Legend can depend on whom you are talking to. The Black Legend speaks of the Spaniards abusing the Indians and being guilty of much more misconduct than history has ever recorded. The White Legend speaks of how the Spaniards benefitted the Indian society by building communities, hospitals and spreading the Word of God. There are two reasons why the Spaniards were so intent on spreading the Gospel. The first is because Spain wanted to ensure political and military means of safety and independence of their own religious community and even more so their predominance over others. The second was a deeper desire to convert, which included appealing to the minds and hearts of individual unbelievers by preaching, reasoning and if needed by force (Plumb 152). The conquest of the new world began with a small band of Spanish soldiers. The soldiers proceeded to march against and subdue the huge population of the mainland (Black 24). The Black Legend speaks of all that the Spanish had done to the Indians and the horrible things done to them and the land. This Black Legend exists only in areas where the people are "anti-Hispanic" especially where English is spoken, and in modern Spanish America (24). The White Legend is true only in reverse. The people who claim to believe in this Legend hold to the belief that the Spanish were a credit to society and help the Indians in their everyday lives by providing livestock and new medici... ... they had never intended to live. They were forced to lose their families in the name of the Spanish crown and the Spanish crown had only a vague knowledge of what was really happening in the new world. Which one, whether Black or White Legend, a person believes will have to depend on their own personal view of the truth. Bibliography Gibson, Charles. The Black Legend: Anti-Spanish Attitudes in the Old World and the new. New York: Knopf 1971. --------- Spain in America. New York: Harper 1966. --------- Spanish Tradition in America. Ny: Harper 1968. Haring, C.H. The Spanish Empire in America. New York: Oxford 1947. Ludenfeld, Marvin. 1492 Discovery Invasion Encounter. Massachussets: 1991. Plumb, J.H. The Spanish Seaborne Empire. New York: Knopf 1966. Sale, Kirkpatrick. The Conquest of Paradise. New York: Plume 1990.